Languages- English (03), Marathi (16), Sanskrit (27) Paper & Study Tips

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Hello. नमस्कार. नमस्ते । नमो नमः । It is indeed a great pleasure to tell more about some important subjects – Languages. Well, to give you a general information about languages, a student studying in Maharshtra SSC Board affiliated school has to study 3 subjects. The first language is always the medium in which one is studying. This language will be higher level. The second language is Marathi/English of lower level. The third language has many options available for Std. 10. But, an English/Marathi medium student has to compulsorily choose Hindi till Std. 7. From Std. 8 onwards, one has many options like Modern Indian language (Gujarati, Hindi, Tamil,etc.)/ Ancient Indian language (Sanskrit, Pali, Ardhamagadhi, etc.) or Modern Foreign language (French, German, etc.). Of these, only Sanskrit and Hindi can be chosen as entire languages for 100 marks. In case of other languages (also for Sanskrit if desired), one has choose 50 marks composite syllabus with a 50 marks composite syllabus of Hindi. Now, let us move on to the important part.


STUDY TIPS:

  1. Languages need have a thorough reading of the textbooks and also of non-textual literature. That helps you develop your vocabulary, grammar, writing-skills, understanding power (comprehension) which means literally your entire activity-sheet. But, reading just for sake for exams isn’t all. There is also a specific method reading specifically textbook chapters which will help you to cope with the new activity-based paper pattern. Whenever starting a new lesson, first, read the entire lesson continuously (only once). Now, close your eyes and try to remember (not by-heart as it is, I mean you should know the chapter in your own words) as much as you can. Then, the next step is read again, but now in a different way. Take 15 lines text of the lesson (that is the length of the extract given to you in exam). Now, underline the proverbs (म्हणी), idioms (वाक्प्रचार), prepositions, अव्यय, poem-lines etc. If possible, make your own questions. This will make your language strong. I am not telling you to keep on reading the whole day, bu at least 1 hour reading for all three languages will also be enough.
  2. Do not learn answers from guides. But do refer some guides to know the various types of activities as well do get some extra information for writing skills and personal responses.
  3. Grammar – I think almost everything of you has been told since class 3rd that like Mathematics, Grammar requires practice to make it perfect. Not to lie, but yes, this usual statement is true to the core. You have to know grammar right from the class 3rd syllabus because it is only when you make your foundation strong that you will understand later grammar concepts.
  4. Writing Skills and Personal Responses – In the view of many (not all) students, this is the most hated part. WRITING SKILLS/ PERSONAL RESPONSE – students feel like the sky has fallen down once they hear it. Friends, just chillax. No need to take much tension regarding this part. In order to get good marks, there are two steps. The first step is your views. Gather all your views. Even here, reading will pave a good way because when you have good reading power, you can have lots of good ideas regarding a topic. But this isn’t enough. You should also be able to jot down your ideas on the paper in an excellent way. For this, you need good vocabulary and grammar and again the root goes back to reading. You need to fix a day of the week on which you will do only writing skills (2 per subject) and nothing else. In the remaining time, just rest. If you don’t like to stay idle, solve a paper on that day. If possible, include maximum 1 quote/proverb/idiom/poem-line per personal response and maximum 4 per writing skill. Good words are always welcome. (by good, I mean good not difficult, that makes the language difficult to digest). Don’t do much of this. उगाच भाषेचा फुलोरा नको. In writing skills like essays, one each at start and end and 1/2 in middle will be enough. And write at end, only if it is relevant. पूर्ण जेवण स्वादिष्ट पण शेवटच्या घासात खडा आला – असे व्हायला नको.
  5. Rapid Reading – Do as the name says. Read rapidly. That will be enough for English, Hindi, Sanskrit, etc. Marathi has answers to be learned for rapid reading; more tips regarding this below.
  6. Do practise the questions given in the textbook. They are asked in the same form or other (concept is same). In these questions also, solve only those comprehension questions which are based on text. All vocabulary, writing skills, grammar activities should be done regardless of text.
  7. Many-a-times, students have complaints that languages papers are not completed in time. But see, 180 minutes for a 80 marks paper are enough. Rather you have 20 more minutes than the double the number of marks. For this, my teacher gave me a perfect solution. It is difficult is meant to be so or even easy if meant like that. Now, the master key is that you have to go on writing continuously without even wasting a single minute. At minute zero, when the starting the paper, once you lower your neck towards the paper don’t even lift it up until you finish the paper. I also suggest that don’t even move your neck and eyes to see the time. When you follow this method sincerely, I guarantee, when you lift your head after finishing and see the time you will notice that there are still 10 minutes (Marathi, Sanskrit, etc.) and 20-15 minutes (English) left with you. Follow this for every paper (even other subjects) and then you will become habitulised to it. Now, if you want to tell me that time is required for thinking good content for writing skills, my reply is that you can do it in the 10 minutes time given prior for reading. However, even if you have read the questions in that time, ideas will surely pop out when writing the paper (without spending special time for it).
  8. If possible, make a list of proverbs, quotes, etc. topic-wise. See the following document for sample.   ENGLISH QUOTES

Only English – 

  1. Know the words, quotes, etc. from the textbook properly. Including those in writing skills is more appreciated because that tells the examiner that you are putting it in application what you have learnt in class.
  2. My friends who unfortunately strive to get passing marks, writing skills and personal responses are blessings for you. Write whatever you know regarding the topic, write anything related if you don’t know anything relevant, but write. The teacher will certainly give you marks for that. Atleast, that much marks which are required for passing.

Only Marathi – 

  1. सर्व धड्यांचे व कवितांचे नीट वाचन करणे आवश्यक.
  2. भाषा आकर्षक असावी, कृत्रिम नाही.
  3. स्थूलवाचन – स्थूलवाचनाला फक्त ४ गुण असले, तरी हे गुण महत्त्वाचे आहेत कारण हे संपूर्ण गुण मिळतात. या चार गुणांसाठी प्रश्नोत्तरे पाठ करायला हवीत. पण पाठांतर शेवटच्या क्षणी करू नये. जूनपासूनच पाठांतर करावं. त्यात पहिला धडा संपूर्ण पाठ करावा. दुसर्‍या धड्यासाठी नवनीत मार्गदर्शिका वापरावी. तिसर्‍या व चौथ्या धड्यांसाठी नवनीत वापरून स्वतःच्या Notes तयार कराव्यात. या Notes मध्ये पाठाच्या प्रत्येक भागाचा समावेश असावा.
  4. वृत्तलेखन सुंदर येण्यासाठी रोज वृत्तपत्र (न्यूजपेपर) वाचणे आवश्यक. किमान थोडा भाग. महाराष्ट्र टाइम्स मधील सगुण-निर्गुण हा लेख नियमित वाचल्यास स्वमतासाठी बरे होईल.तसेच जाहिरातीसाठी वृत्तपत्रातील नमुने पहावेत.
  5. निबंधाचे तीन प्रकार आहेत – वर्णनात्मक, कल्पनाप्रधान, आत्मकथन. यातील प्रत्येक प्रकाराचा एक विषय दिला जातो. या तीन विषयांपैकी एकावर निबंध लिहीणे आवश्यक. म्हणून, यातील दोन आवडते प्रकार निवडावे, व या प्रकारांतील एकूण एक निबंधाची तयारी करावी. कारण हे की उगाच एक न धड, भाराभर चिंध्या होऊ नये. आणि फक्त एकच प्रकार अभ्यासणे धोक्याचे आहे (परीक्षेला त्या प्रकाराचा निबंध अवघड असला तर?). यासाठी सुवर्ण मध्य म्हणून दोन प्रकार.

Only Sanskrit – 

  1. Read all lessons thoroughly.
  2. Don’t ignore the grammatical explanations and exercises given in the textbooks at the end of each chapter. Expertise the questions in the exercises given because they will be asked but of courses in a different form. Grammatical explanations will help you with grammar and vocabulary (शब्दज्ञान) activities.
  3. When reading the lessons, underline the पूर्वकालवाचक-अव्यय, हेत्वर्थक-तुमन्त-अव्यय, अव्यय, परोक्षभूतकालधातु, etc. This is will help for vocabulary (शब्दज्ञान) activities.
  4. Always keep the pink paper (chart containing विभक्ति, prepositions and purposes) thoroughly memorized. The foundation behind almost everything in the syllabus goes back to this. In order to know what this is, refer the 8th Std. Textbook देव Table.
  5. Be careful for Poetry and Rapid Reading Sections. Study these properly because these sections do not have extra questions.
  6. Study the Krutipustika and Krutipatrika given by the board on its website thoroughly. These contain important questions. (The board hasn’t instructed so, but I guarantee you. Yes, but don’t be 100% dependent on this. No spoonfeeding.) Giving you links to these. 1.Sanskrit QP  2.Std.10 Sanskrut 2nd Lang. 100M -Krutipustika
  7. Prose-order  – Don’t take much tension about this. If you know the translation of each verse, word to word, then this is not a big part. But, even then, if you are encountering problems with this, just simply learn it by-heart in parts (Don’t rattofy the entire thing, because then you may get confused with complete verses). I suggest you make a list of all verses in prose-order according to poem.
  8. Verses Completion – For Std. X, you have poems 1 (सुभाषितमाला – ), 4 (अन्त्याक्षरी) and 6 (सुभाषितमाला – ) for learning by-heart. If possible, complete studying these poems first so that you get time for learning and revising right from the beginning. Memorize the verses by breaking it into parts (each line into 2/3 parts). But, this isn’t enough. Putting them down on the paper accurately is also extremely important because if you make mistake in writing even if learnt properly, then your learning will have no value. So, to write accurately, all that is needed is practice. For practising, write the verses everyday one time in the first week of learning. And check them from the textbook only (Don’t check from previous written ones because if there is any ignored mistake there, it will be ignored again) Never make the same mistake twice. From the second week onwards, practise only once per week. Other instructions are similar.
  9. Metre (वृत्त) – For 10th syllabus there are 6 verses for which metre will be asked. Even here, there is a trend of 1, 2, 3 i.e. 1 उपेन्द्रवज्रा, 2 गीतिः, 3 उपेन्द्रवज्रा. Of these you should rattofy that अहो —- ददाति is इन्द्रवज्रा. There are tricks for गीतिः. In the first verse वंशभवो — महिमानम्, there is वीणा and गीत comes from वीणा. So गीतिः. Similarly, in समुपागतवति—- महामान्यः, there is bee, bee makes humming sound, similar to गीत. So गीतिः. Other three are इन्द्रवज्रा. A suggestion for toppers – To be on a safer side, go through the last 2 pages of textbooks which tell you about the above three metres with examples. Keep these example verses at the back of the mind using some tricks like above.
  10. Most probably the prose rapid reading chapter will be asked in March 2018 exams. But, I request you to study both the rapid reading chapters.
  11. Study the notes at the end of each chapter. Also remember the poet/author name and other names like Hon Mr. Atal Bihari Vajpayee. This will help you in personal responses.
  12. For writing skills Section IV Q. A, B, C, use Navneet Digest. For D, use appendix of Std. 9 and 10 textbooks. Make simple, short but valid (with given root/indeclinable, subject, object) sentences.
  13. For grammar Section V, studying the lessons and poems as given above will be enough. Refer to respective Grammatical explanations for causal constructions and numericals. In do as directed, always make it habit to make markings as shown in the solution links. That helps a lot. Numericals – There are three types of numericals viz. Cardinal, Ordinal, Frequentative. Cardinal means normal number like 1, 2, 3, etc. For this, you have to learn tables (above tricks can be used). Here, note that the Feminine Nominative form of 3 is तिस्रः(tisra) and not तिस्त्रः(tistra). Next is Ordinals like 1st, 2nd, 3rd, etc. For Masculine forms, you can refer to section names like प्रथमः विभागः, द्वितीयः विभागः (given in krutipustika itself). For feminine forms, use the Indian (Marathi) Calendar Tithis. For neuter, use masculine forms like वन.
  14. For unseen translation Section VI, use Navneet digest for learning and textbook for practice (put some markings). In poem, you need to write explanation and speciality (like metre) if given (I used to write figure of speech अलंकार name also that too Sanskrit name), especially for 4 line verses for 4 marks. Study 4 line verses first. In dialogue (play), you have to write the source (the main play and its composer) if known to man. Navneet will help you with this. Again, write these only if you’re 100% sure. Writing correct/not writing will not have any effect (except for 100 marks scorers); but writing wrong info.will surely harm you by half a mark.

PAPER PRESENTATION TECHNIQUES

The common presentation tips regarding all the subjects are available on GENERAL PRESENTATION TIPS post. Following are featured especially for Languages Papers . To understand these in a better way, refer English (03) March 2017 Solution, Marathi (16) March 2017 Solution and Sanskrit (27) March 2017 Solution.

  1. Languages need have a thorough reading of the textbooks and also of non-textual literature. That helps you develop your vocabulary, grammar, writing-skills, understanding power (comprehension) which means literally your entire activity-sheet. But, reading just for sake for exams isn’t all. There is also a specific method reading specifically textbook chapters which will help you to cope with the new activity-based paper pattern. Whenever starting a new lesson, first, read the entire lesson continuously (only once). Now, close your eyes and try to remember (not by-heart as it is, I mean you should know the chapter in your own words) as much as you can. Then, the next step is read again, but now in a different way. Take 15 lines text of the lesson (that is the length of the extract given to you in exam). Now, underline the proverbs (म्हणी), idioms (वाक्प्रचार), prepositions, अव्यय, poem-lines etc. If possible, make your own questions. This will make your language strong. I am not telling you to keep on reading the whole day, bu at least 1 hour reading for all three languages will also be enough.
  2. Do not learn answers from guides. But do refer some guides to know the various types of activities as well do get some extra information for writing skills and personal responses.
  3. Grammar – I think almost everything of you has been told since class 3rd that like Mathematics, Grammar requires practice to make it perfect. Not to lie, but yes, this usual statement is true to the core. You have to know grammar right from the class 3rd syllabus because it is only when you make your foundation strong that you will understand later grammar concepts.
  4. Writing Skills and Personal Responses – In the view of many (not all) students, this is the most hated part. WRITING SKILLS/ PERSONAL RESPONSE – students feel like the sky has fallen down once they hear it. Friends, just chillax. No need to take much tension regarding this part. In order to get good marks, there are two steps. The first step is your views. Gather all your views. Even here, reading will pave a good way because when you have good reading power, you can have lots of good ideas regarding a topic. But this isn’t enough. You should also be able to jot down your ideas on the paper in an excellent way. For this, you need good vocabulary and grammar and again the root goes back to reading. You need to fix a day of the week on which you will do only writing skills (2 per subject) and nothing else. In the remaining time, just rest. If you don’t like to stay idle, solve a paper on that day. If possible, include maximum 1 quote/proverb/idiom/poem-line per personal response and maximum 4 per writing skill. Good words are always welcome. (by good, I mean good not difficult, that makes the language difficult to digest). Don’t do much of this. उगाच भाषेचा फुलोरा नको. In writing skills like essays, one each at start and end and 1/2 in middle will be enough. And write at end, only if it is relevant. पूर्ण जेवण स्वादिष्ट पण शेवटच्या घासात खडा आला – असे व्हायला नको.
  5. Rapid Reading – Do as the name says. Read rapidly. That will be enough for English, Hindi, Sanskrit, etc. Marathi has answers to be learned for rapid reading; more tips regarding this below.
  6. Do practise the questions given in the textbook. They are asked in the same form or other (concept is same). In these questions also, solve only those comprehension questions which are based on text. All vocabulary, writing skills, grammar activities should be done regardless of text.
  7. Many-a-times, students have complaints that languages papers are not completed in time. But see, 180 minutes for a 80 marks paper are enough. Rather you have 20 more minutes than the double the number of marks. For this, my teacher gave me a perfect solution. It is difficult is meant to be so or even easy if meant like that. Now, the master key is that you have to go on writing continuously without even wasting a single minute. At minute zero, when the starting the paper, once you lower your neck towards the paper don’t even lift it up until you finish the paper. I also suggest that don’t even move your neck and eyes to see the time. When you follow this method sincerely, I guarantee, when you lift your head after finishing and see the time you will notice that there are still 10 minutes (Marathi, Sanskrit, etc.) and 20-15 minutes (English) left with you. Follow this for every paper (even other subjects) and then you will become habitulised to it. Now, if you want to tell me that time is required for thinking good content for writing skills, my reply is that you can do it in the 10 minutes time given prior for reading. However, even if you have read the questions in that time, ideas will surely pop out when writing the paper (without spending special time for it).

Only English – 

  1. Know the words, quotes, etc. from the textbook properly. Including those in writing skills is more appreciated because that tells the examiner that you are putting it in application what you have learnt in class.
  2. Story should be attractive. It should be like one part of the story should increase the reader’s curiosity and make him read the next part. It should be catchy.

Only Marathi – 

  1. s
  2. स्वमत थोडक्यात (१० ओळी) असाव पण प्रभावशाली असावं कारण हा पहिला प्रश्न ज्यात तुमची शिष्यवृत्ती दिसून येईल. अजून माहितीसाठी वरील Study Tip 4 पहा.
  3. पत्र स्पष्टीकारक असाव पण थोडक्यात असावं. भाषा औपचारिकच असावी. लिफाफा नक्की आखावा. अचूक लिफाफा काढण्यासाठीही काही परिमाण (Measurements) खालील प्रमाणे –
  4. गोष्ट रंजक असावी. जास्त मोठी असू नये, नाहीतर त्यातला रस जातो. शीर्षक व तात्पर्य लिहिणे आवश्यक.
  5. आकलनाचे ५ प्रश्न बनविताना असे प्रश्न बनवावेत की त्यांचे उत्तर एका वाक्यात येईल (एक शब्द उत्तर जमल्यास टाळावे). प्रश्न अवघड नसल्याने या प्रश्नाचे ५ पैकी ५ गुण मिळायला हवे.
  6. सारांश-लेखनासाठी दिलेला उतारा दोन वेळा वाचावा. नंतर पुन्हा एकदाही न पाहता सारांश लिहावा. तुम्हाला जे समजले आहे ते लिहावे. उतार्‍यातील शब्द तसेच लिहू नयेत. शेवटी वेळ असल्यास, मूळ उतार्‍यातील एकूण शब्द (सरासरी approximate) व सारांशातील एकूण शब्द (सरासरी approximate) लिहीले तर बरे. शक्यतो हा प्रश्न टाळून दुसरा उपलब्ध पर्याय निवडावा कारण बहुदा परीक्षकाच्या अपेक्षेनुसार सारांश लिहीला जात नाही.
  7. निबंधासाठी Study Tip 4 पहा.

Only Sanskrit – 

  1. s

SUGGESTED BOOKS –

  1. Navneet – Std. X Marathi for Personal Responses and Rapid Reading
  2. Navneet – Std. X Marathi for Personal Responses, Appendices and Unseen.
  3. मराठी व्याकरण – डॉ. के. पी. शहा
  4. अक्षरशिल्पे १, , विनया हतवळणे, आनंद हतवळणे
  5. Any good book of quotes, proverbs, idioms for Marathi and English each.

EXAM TIME-MANAGEMENT –

  1. English – One hour 15 min/ One and a half hours for Sections I, II and III (Prose, Poetry and Rapid Reading). Remaining time for Section IV (writing skills), Checking and Presentation.
  2. Marathi – One hour 25 min for Sections I, II, III and IV (Prose, Poetry, Rapid Reading and Grammar). Remaining time for Section V (writing skills), Checking and Presentation.
  3. Sanskrit – One hour 5 minutes for Sections I, II and III (Prose, Poetry and Rapid Reading). One hour 5 minutes for Sections IV and V (Writing Skills and Grammar). 25 minutes for Section VI (Unseen Translation). 25 minutes for Checking and Presentation.

Here, I haven’t given perfect time for each and every question because everyone needs different amount of time for different types of questions. So, he/she has to adjust accordingly. Make your own time management table to suit your needs.

Remember to make the time management suitable according to your needs. Also, be prepared to adjust the time management during examinations depending on the questions asked. Slight changes can de done, but remember to give the same time for presentation and checking. Suggesting to do checking before presentation.


चला. आतापूरता निरोप घेतो. भेटू अशाच एका मस्त पोस्टबरोबर. तोपर्यंत Bye.

# Only for Educational Purposes.

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